Aya Shown
Knows Chinese

Of course, the ancient Romans knew about the existence of the Han Dynasty. On the contrary, the Han Dynasty also knew the existence of ancient Rome.
But these two countries are far apart, separated by the Parthia Empire and the Guishuang Empire.
So their mutual understanding is very limited, mostly through intermediaries.

當然,古羅馬人知道漢朝的存在。相反,漢朝也知道古羅馬的存在。
但這兩個國家相距甚遠,隔著安息帝國和貴霜帝國。
所以他們之間的了解非常有限,大多是通過中間人。

原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.codygalaherlaw.com 轉載請注明出處


The Chinese call ancient Rome the "Great Qin"
The ancient Romans recorded China as the "Seris Kingdom"

中國人稱古羅馬為“大秦”
古羅馬人將中國記為“塞力斯王國”

原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.codygalaherlaw.com 轉載請注明出處


Among China's massive historical records, there are only three records about ancient Rome.
"Book of the Later Han Dynasty": In the ninth year of Yongyuan(98AD), Ban Chao sent Gan Ying to find Great Qin. He finally reached the edge of sea and wanted to go by boat, but the Parthia businessman told him: "The sea is very big, and it will take three months if the wind is favorable, and two years if the wind is headwind. It is very dangerous." Gan Ying gave up and returned to Chang'an.
"Book of the Later Han Dynasty": "In the ninth year of Yanxi(165AD), the Great Qin King Andun (Anthony) sent envoys to send ivory, rhinoceros horn, and tortoise shell. This was the first exchange between the two countries. The emperor felt that the things they sent were not precious. The country is not as powerful as it is said to be"
"Book of the Later Han Dynasty": "In the first year of Yongning (120AD), the king of Shan State sent someone to congratulate him again. This time there was a magician in the gift. The magician said that he came from the Great Qin in the west of sea"

在中國大量的歷史記載中,關于古羅馬的記載只三篇。
《后漢書》:永元九年(公元98年),班超派甘英去找大秦。他終于到了海邊,想要乘船前往,安息商人卻告訴他:“大海很大,順風要三個月,逆風要兩年,非常危險?!?甘英放棄,返回長安。
《后漢書》:“延熹九年(公元165年),大秦王安敦(安東尼)遣使送來象牙、犀牛角、龜甲,這是兩國第一次交往?;实塾X得他們送來的東西并不珍貴,這個國家并沒有傳說中那么強大?!?br /> 《后漢書》:“永寧元年(公元120年),撣王再次派人來賀,這次的禮物中有一個魔術師。魔術師說他來自海西大秦。

There are few books in ancient Rome, and there is only one record about China.
"Natural History" :"The country of Seris produces silk in the forest, which is famous in the word. Silk is grown on trees, taken out, wetted with water, and processed into silk. It is woven into brocade and trafficked to Rome. Women of rich and nobles cut clothes , brilliant and dazzling. The people of Seris are gentle, but they seldom contact with people, and they always wait for others to come to trade, and never take the initiative to sell."

古羅馬的書籍很少,關于中國的記載也只有一篇。
《博物志》:“塞力斯國在森林中出產絲綢,聞名于世。絲綢長在樹上,取出??來,用水潤濕,加工成絲綢,織成錦緞,販運到羅馬。富貴女人剪裁成衣服,光彩奪目,塞力斯人性格溫和,但很少與人接觸,總是等待別人前來交易,從不主動出賣。

There is even a war between the Eastern Han Empire and the Roman legions recorded in Chinese history books!
Of course, this record is not complete, and many of the contents are imagined and inferred by historians and cannot really be determined.

中國歷史書上甚至還記載著東漢帝國與羅馬軍團之間的戰爭!
當然,這段記載并不完整,很多內容都是歷史學家的想象和推斷,無法真正確定。

Battle of Zhizhi City:

郅支城之戰

In 36 BC, two generals, Chen Tang and Gan Yanshou, led a Han Empire cavalry into the desert to pursue the remnants of the Huns. The Zhizhi Chanyu of the Huns led the last force to flee westward. They fled into Zhizhi City in Kangju State. (Today's Zhambyl City, Zhambyl Oblast, southern Kazakhstan)
The armies of Chen Tang and Gan Yanshou surrounded the city, and their forwards met the troops guarding the city outside the city. The scouts were surprised to find that in addition to the Huns cavalry, there was a strange army guarding the city.

公元前36年,陳湯、甘延壽兩位將軍率領漢帝國騎兵進入沙漠追擊匈奴殘部。匈奴郅支單于率領最后一支部隊向西逃亡。他們逃入康居國郅支城。(今哈薩克斯坦南部江布爾州江布爾市)
陳湯、甘延壽的軍隊包圍了城池,前鋒在城外與守城的軍隊相遇。偵察兵驚奇地發現,除了匈奴騎兵之外,還有一支奇怪的軍隊守衛著城池。

The "Book of Han" records what this army looked like: "More than a hundred infantrymen, forming a fish-scale formation behind the gate, were taught how to use troops."
It roughly means: This is an army of about 200 people, and they are entirely infantry. They lined up in a neat square formation, holding up shields, a structure like fish scales. They were actually teaching the Huns cavalry how to deploy defenses.
In the war between the Han Empire and the Huns, they had never encountered the Huns possessing infantry, let alone a phalanx. It was obvious that this small army was not Huns.

《漢書》記載了這支軍隊的樣子:“步兵百余,呈夾門魚鱗陣,講習用兵”。
大致意思是:這是一支約200人的軍隊,而且全是步兵。他們排成整齊的方陣,舉著盾牌,結構如魚鱗。他們實際上是在教匈奴騎兵如何布置防御。
在漢帝國與匈奴的戰爭中,他們從未遇到過擁有步兵的匈奴軍隊,更不用說方陣了。顯然,這支小軍隊并不是匈奴人。

After the battle began, the Huns cavalry first charged the Han army. General Chen Tang ordered the crossbowmen to attack from a distance. After the first round of attacks, the Huns' cavalry suffered hundreds of casualties and quickly retreated.
However, this infantry group of about 200 people did not retreat. They attacked the Han army in neat steps.

戰斗開始后,匈奴騎兵首先向漢軍發起沖鋒。陳湯將軍命令弓弩手遠距離攻擊。第一輪攻擊后,匈奴騎兵傷亡數百人,迅速撤退。
然而,這支約200人的步兵團并沒有撤退。他們步伐整齊地攻擊漢軍。

The Han Dynasty army found it strange, so they sent cavalry to attack around this square formation, using cavalry and archery tactics to attack. The shields of this infantry could not protect against all arrows, and the number was too disparate. They were quickly defeated, and the surviving soldiers were captured by General Chen Tang.
Later, there are legends that these soldiers were sent back to the Han Dynasty, but official historical records state that they were given to some kings in the Western Regions as slaves.

漢朝軍隊覺得奇怪,就派騎兵圍著這個方陣進攻,采用騎射的戰術來攻擊。這支步兵的盾牌并不能抵擋所有的箭矢,而且人數也相差太大。他們很快被擊敗,幸存的士兵被陳湯將軍俘虜。
后來有傳說這些士兵被送回漢朝,但官方史書記載,他們是被送給西域的一些國王當奴隸去了。

Some historians believe that the descxtion of this army in historical documents is very similar to the Roman legions. They speculated that this was a small unit captured during the Roman legion's eastern expedition. They moved to Kazakhstan and became mercenaries of Kang Juguo. Finally, they encountered the army of the Han Empire and this battle took place.

有歷史學家認為,歷史文獻中對這支軍隊的描述與羅馬軍團非常相似。他們推測這是羅馬軍團東征時失散的一小支部隊。他們移居哈薩克斯坦,成為康居國的雇傭兵。最后,他們遇到了漢帝國的軍隊,發生了這場戰斗。